No matter where First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples in Canada live, they face unique health challenges. Often higher rates of diabetes, heart disease, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and many other diseases can been seen in FNIM people compared to non-FNIM people. Additionally, mortality rates are higher and life expectancy is lower in First Nations, Inuit and Métis people than in the general Canadian population. This course examines the major lifestyle changes that have occurred over the past decades for First Nations, Inuit and Métis people and communities. The course also provides an overview of the behavioural risk factors that have contributed to the shift from communicable diseases to chronic diseases and the associated statistics with these risk factors for First Nations, Inuit and Métis people.